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纳米发电机设计灵感 - China Medical Device Manufacturer
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Wed, January 17th, 2018

2007 秋季刊 » 技术新知
纳米发电机设计灵感

纳米发电机的原型是利用从外界环境中获取的能量来产生持续的直流电,佐治亚理工大学材料科学工程学院的王中林教授领导的研究小组就发明了这样一个装置。

出于几个原因,该原型在之前的基础上作了一些改进。首先,新型号的装置是由垂直排列的氧化锌制成。这是一种压电的半导体材料,而且它具有无毒性和生物兼容性的特点。而早期型号的装置使用的材料是涂有铂层的硅。其次,垂直的排列方式可以增加之字型极板内部的运动,使得一些纳米线可以同时获得能量,而不是像最初的设计,每次只有一根纳米线可以获得能量。

原型制作中首先让垂直纳米线生长于砷化镓、蓝宝石或柔性聚合物基质上,纳米线之间彼此间隔大约0.5微米。 一层氧化锌生长在基质顶部以收集电流,研究者还制造了之字型的硅电极,其包含了数千个纳米级尖端,外面涂有可导电的铂层。

之后,将电极放入纳米线阵列上,留出足够的空间,使一些纳米线可以在尖端间的空隙内进行摆动。通过波动或振动等机械能的驱动,这些纳米线周期性地接触电极尖端,进而转移电荷。通过捕获由数百根纳米线运动产生的微小电流,发电机便产生了纳安级输出的直流电。

王教授和他的研究小组期望,以单根纳米线来计算的话,经过优化的纳米发电机可以产生4W/cm3的功率密度,这足以启动移植入身体内的生物传感器。

这项研究是由美国国防部高级研究计划局、美国国家科学基金会、癌症纳米技术协会的Emory-Georgia技术中心发起的。关于纳米发电机的详细研究情况发表在4月6日出版的《科学》杂志上。

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