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研究人员利用壳聚糖和聚脂研发出生物相容性材料 - China Medical Device Manufacturer
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Fri, January 19th, 2018

2009年7/8月CMDM电子快讯 » 技术新知
研究人员利用壳聚糖和聚脂研发出生物相容性材料

华盛顿大学的研究人员将甲壳类动物外壳中的壳聚糖与工业级聚酯混合,创造出一种新型材料。这种混合纤维结合了壳聚糖的生物相容性和合成聚合物的机械强度,在众多医疗领域具有应用潜力。

目前,研究人员利用该材料制成细微的神经导管,用于修复受损神经。华盛顿大学的材料科学与工程教授Miqin Zhang解释道:“神经导管必需具有生物相容性,在溶液中能保持稳定,抗外挤且柔软,只有这样外科医生才能将其缝合至神经”。寻找满足上述所有严苛要求的合适材料十分困难,张教授补充道。

现今的商用神经导管由胶原蛋白(一种提取自动物细胞的结构蛋白)制成。但胶原蛋白不仅昂贵,而且有可能触发人体免疫反应,且在诸如人体内的潮湿环境中也会变得脆弱易损。

张教授和同事研制出一种替代产品。他们采用电纺丝技术,将聚己内酯和壳聚糖两种材料制成纳米纤维后编织在一起。这两种材料均不适合单独用作神经导管:水基细胞不易在聚酯的疏水表面生长,而壳聚糖遇水则膨胀,使之在潮湿的环境中变得脆弱。但将二者特性相结合制成的材料,其质地与人体细胞周围结缔组织中的纳米级纤维相似。

张教授和同事制造出直径1.5 mm(0.06英寸)、长5至15 cm(2至6英寸)的神经导管原型。他们将壳聚糖聚酯混合物与另一种正在研究的生物材料(乳酸-羟基乙酸共聚物)制成的导管以及商用胶原蛋白导管进行了比较测试。

在3种材料中,壳聚糖聚酯无论在干燥还是潮湿的环境下,都表现出稳定的强度、弹性和耐压性。在最能模拟人体内部的潮湿环境中,壳聚糖聚酯混合材料管的抗拉力是另一种生物材料管的两倍,是胶原蛋白导管的8倍。

张教授指出,这种新型复合材料不仅可用于神经导管的制造,在伤口敷料、心脏移植、肌腱、韧带、软骨、肌肉修复以及其他生物医学领域也将具有广泛的应用前景。


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